Micro selection, part 3

This week, I will discuss how using a micro’s on-chip peripherals can help to reduce your power consumption along with how GPIOs can help or hinder your power savings efforts.

Internal vs External Peripherals

With modern micro architectures, using internal peripherals tends to be considerably more power efficient than using external peripherals. There are a number of reasons for this:

  • The main reason is most modern micros operate with a lower core voltage so internal peripherals operate at the lower core voltage and external peripherals operate at the higher system voltage.
  • The trend towards using 2 and 3 wire peripheral interfaces like I2C and SPI to reduce pin count and package size means clocked serializer and deserializer circuits are required for external peripherals while internal peripherals have much faster parallel interfaces. These added circuits consume additional power plus the micro is also using power while waiting for data transfers with the external device to complete.
  • Passing signals through the micro’s I/O buffers to access off-chip peripherals consumes additional power. When you must use off-chip peripherals, high-speed serial SPI/I2C interfaces may be more efficient than 8 or 16 bit parallel interfaces since the I/O buffers will always consume power, not just during the data transfers. Using these serial interfaces will be even more power efficient on micros that have SPI/I2C controllers so the micro can sleep while the transfers take place. If you must use parallel interface external peripherals, the I/O pins used for data lines should be driven low when not in use to minimize power.


There are a number of ways that GPIO can impact power consumption:

  • The I/O ports on most older micro architectures have fixed drive strength. Many modern architectures provide drive strength control on a per port or even per pin basis so the drive strength can be tailored to the circuit requirements.
  • Similarly, if your design uses more than a few GPIO outputs that change states frequently, for ultimate power savings look for a micro that supports programmable slew rates. Faster signal transitions require more power than slower ones for the same capacitive load.
  • Most micros provide options for internal pull-ups and/or pull-downs on their I/O ports. While convenient to use and a good way to reduce total parts count, these internal pull-ups tend to not be well controlled and can be as low as a few K-ohms on some micros, leading to excessive current draw.  Consider a 3.3V micro, with an internal 5K pull-up on a switch input that is normally grounded. This 5K pull-up will pull 660uA, compared to 33uA for an external 100K pull-up. Some micros also provide control of the pull-ups/pull-downs on a per port basis so all inputs on a port will have the pull-up/pull-down enabled just because one input needs it. If extreme low power is required, it’s much better to use discrete pull-up/down resistors only where needed and with as high a value resistor as can be tolerated in the circuit.
  • Unless the micro datasheet says otherwise, it’s usually best for low power usage to configure unused GPIO as outputs driving a logic low. In this configuration, the I/O pin is trying to sink current so it is using virtually no power.
  • Slowly rising or falling input signals can cause excessive power consumption and even generate noisy oscillations while the input is between the low and high input thresholds. Few micros provide Schmitt trigger inputs so an external Schmitt trigger buffer may be needed to provide fast, clean transitions to the micro. If the slow transition time is due to a weak pull-up it may be more efficient to use a stronger pull-up than to power the Schmitt trigger device.

Next week we’ll wrap up the topic of micro selection with a discussion on low-power modes. This is an area where there is no standardization so “idle mode” and “deep sleep” may have different meanings and levels of functionality even between micros from the same manufacturer.