Tag Archives: binary decode

Low power firmware – switch statements

This week I’m going to focus on switch statements. While easy to implement and a good way to improve code readability, frequently executed switch statements can burn a considerable number of clock cycles. It can be easy to fall into the trap of thinking in a switch statement the micro examines a variable and auto-magically goes to the correct block of code for that value of the variable. Since they are really a sequence of if-then-else statements, frequently executed switch statements can be very wasteful of power. Here are several ways to make them more efficient, some of them can be combined for even greater efficiency improvements:

  • Arrange the order of the case statements so that the most frequently executed cases are listed first. You should check the compiled code to make sure the assembly code checks for the cases in the order they are listed or abandon the switch statement and implement your own sequence of if-then-else statements to ensure the order you want.
  • You may be able to sacrifice some simplicity in the code and do a binary decode on the switch variable. The example below for a simple 4 case switch statement doesn’t appear to offer much improvement but is just intended to illustrate the binary decode. As the number of cases increases, the savings in time and power can be considerable, an 8 case switch statement goes from potentially seven tests to only three tests, a 16 case switch statement goes from potentially 15 tests to four and so on. If a few values are encountered significantly more often or are more time critical than the others, you can specifically test for those values before starting the binary decode. If you do this, remove the code for those values in the decoder code for clarity and to reduce code size.

code_binary_decode

  • Using several if-then-else sequences testing for ranges of values of the switch variable with each test having its own if-then-else sequence can considerably improve the efficiency. The example below shows splitting what would be a 16 value switch statement into two “if” statements each with an eight value switch statement, reducing the worst case from 15 tests to 8 tests. Breaking it down further to four “if” statements each with a four value switch statement reduces the worst case to six tests.

code_split_switch

  • Nesting switch statements can produce similar improvements in the worst case number of tests required. To do this effectively you really need two variables or a variable that can be cleanly split into two fields like a “mode” for the first level switch and “command code” for the second level switch statements. The example below shows how an instruction opcode parser could be done with the opcode split into an instruction type field and command code field.

code_nested_switch

By now you should be seeing that writing low power firmware requires assuming a level of control in how you structure your code to minimize execution time. Next week I’ll continue on low power firmware design with arrays/structures and a discussion about complex algorithms and floating point math.